Rifles - Cartridges - Ballistics - Copyright

308 Winchester - 7.62 NATO
Reloading - Hunting & Ballistics

308 Winchester Rifles And Ballistics:
 Common rifle barrel lengths for 308 Winchester rifles, are; 20, 22", 24" and 26", all of which will show a variance in the ballistics of the 308 Winchester. Variables such as riflescope choices, riflescope mounts and properly mounting your riflescope affect the line of sight above the bore centerline, which contribute to ballistic variances as well. To achieve maximum accuracy from your 308 Winchester rifle for proper ballistic evaluation you need to, break-in your rifle barrel and then accurately sight-in your rifle.
Scope - Mounts - Mounting.
Barrel break-in - Sight-in

External Ballistics:
 External ballistics pertains to bullet velocity, energy and trajectory down-range. Bullet trajectory is the flight path of the bullet relative to some known and fixed points.

Bullet Trajectory And Sighting Plane:
 1. Point blank range when sighting in a rifle is the first point at which the line of sight intersects with the bullets path in the bullets trajectory.
 2. Mid-range rise when sighting in a rifle is the highest point in the bullets trajectory between the point blank range and true zero.
 3. True zero when sighting in a rifle is the second point at which the line of sight intersects with the bullets path in the bullets trajectory.
 4. Maximum point blank range when sighting in a rifle is the height of the mid-range rise and the bullet drop beyond true zero, both are equal in measure.

Rifle Sight Height And Bullet Trajectory:
 To properly sight-in a hunting rifle a person needs to know a little bit about their scope mount height of their rifle as this affects the sight plane that intersects with the bullet's trajectory.

Rifle Sight Height to Bore Center Line:
Open Sights = 1 inch sight height.

Rifle Scope Center Line to Bore Center Line:
Low Scope Mount And Rings = 1.5 inch sight height.
Medium Scope Mount And Rings = 1.8 inch sight height.
High Scope Mount And Rings = 2.0 inch sight height.

Rifle Barrel Length, Bullet Velocity And Energy:
 Bullet velocity readings are generally taken from a rifle barrel length of 24 inches and using the following formula the bullets energy is determined; velocity x velocity x bullet weight = _ divided by 450,340 = bullet kinetic energy in foot pounds.
 If your rifle barrel length is not 24 inches then you have to recalculate the bullet velocity and bullet energy.
Rifle Barrel Length Shorter Than 24 Inch You Subtract Velocity.
Rifle Barrel Length Longer Than 24 Inch You Add Velocity.
2,500 to 3,000 feet per second advertised velocity, adjust at 20 feet per second per inch from standard of 24 inch rifle barrel.
3,000 to 3,500 feet per second advertised velocity, adjust at 30 feet per second per inch from standard of 24 inch rifle barrel.
3,500 to 4,000 feet per second advertised velocity, adjust at 40 feet per second per inch from standard of 24 inch rifle barrel.

Bullet Ballistic Coefficient:
 The bullet ballistic coefficient, higher B.C.s mean flatter trajectories and higher retained energy down-range on target. A ballistic coefficient is the measure of a bullet's relative ability to overcome air resistance. Each bullet is assigned a numerical value expressing this efficiency. Ballistic coefficient calculations combine both shape and sectional density factors.

Bullet Sectional Density:
 Bullet sectional density is a mathematical factor expressing the relationship between the weight of the bullet and its cross-sectional area. Sectional density best describes a bulletís length as to its diameter, the higher the number, the longer the bullet. Generally speaking, longer bulletís of a given diameter (high S.D.) will penetrate deeper than will shorter bulletís of the same given diamter (low S.D.). Having said that, bullet construction ultimately determines its usage for hunting, always follow recommendations by the manufacturer.

Bullet Energy:
 Before the bullet is down-range and on target, you have to know whether the bullet will have enough energy retention to cleanly harvest the animal. A bullet's kinetic energy is measured in foot pounds, and this is a proxy for what's generally termed stopping-power. The higher a bullet's energy at the point of impact, the greater its stopping-power.

Target Size And Bullet Energy Needs:
 Just as important is the size of target that a game animal that your hunting presents to you, typically standing broadside, exposing heart and lung area. Below are hunting ballistics and sight-in charts for 308 Winchester ammunition that categorize this ammunition to its practical use on various game animals for hunting.

Moose Size Game Hunting:

Bears
Moose
 These animals are quite large and offer about an eight inch target zone, for a correct rifle sight-in, a four inch mid-range is required for minimum bullet trajectory effect. For this size animal, I prefer 2,000 foot pounds of bullet energy.
Ammunition Ballistics Selected:
Hornady 308 Winchester Superformace.
Bullet diameter: .308 Inch.
Bullet weight: 165 Grains.
Bullet ballistic coefficient: .447.
Bullet traj. set at 4 inch mid-range rise.
Rifle barrel length: 24 Inches.
Rifle-scope mounted height: 1.8 inches.
Rifle zeroed at 270 Yards.
Maximum point blank range is 315 yards.
/ FPS. = Feet Per Second.
/ FT.LBS. = Foot Pounds.
/ IN. = Inches.
Bullet @ Velocity / FPS. Energy / FT.LBS. Trajectory / IN.
Muzzle 2,840 2,955 - 1.8
100 yds. 2,636 2,545 + 3.3
200 yds. 2,440 2,182 + 3.4
300 yds. 2,253 1,860 - 2.4
400 yds. 2,074 1,577 - 15.1
500 yds. 1,904 1,328 - 35.8
Elk Size Game Hunting:

Caribou
Sheep
Elk
 These animals can be quite large and offer about an six inch target zone, for a correct rifle sight-in, a three inch mid-range is required for minimum bullet trajectory effect. For this size animal, I prefer 1,800 foot pounds of bullet energy.
Ammunition Ballistics Selected:
Hornady 308 Winchester Superformace.
Bullet diameter: .308 Inch.
Bullet weight: 165 Grains.
Bullet ballistic coefficient: .447.
Bullet traj. set at 3 inch mid-range rise.
Rifle barrel length: 24 Inches.
Rifle-scope mounted height: 1.8 inches.
Rifle zeroed at 242 Yards.
Maximum point blank range is 285 yards.
/ FPS. = Feet Per Second.
/ FT.LBS. = Foot Pounds.
/ IN. = Inches.
Bullet @ Velocity / FPS. Energy / FT.LBS. Trajectory / IN.
Muzzle 2,840 2,955 - 1.8
100 yds. 2,636 2,545 + 2.6
200 yds. 2,440 2,182 + 2.0
300 yds. 2,253 1,860 - 4.5
400 yds. 2,074 1,577 - 17.9
500 yds. 1,904 1,328 - 39.3
Deer Size Game Hunting:

Antelope
Blacktail Deer
Hogs
Javelina
Mule Deer
Whitetail Deer
 These animals can be somewhat small at times and offer about an four inch target zone, for a correct rifle sight-in, a two inch mid-range is required for minimum bullet trajectory effect. For this size animal, I prefer 1,200 foot pounds of bullet energy.
Ammunition Ballistics Selected:
Hornady 308 Winchester Superformace.
Bullet diameter: .308 Inch.
Bullet weight: 150 Grains.
Bullet ballistic coefficient: .415.
Bullet traj. set at 2 inch mid-range rise.
Rifle barrel length: 24 Inches.
Rifle-scope mounted height: 1.8 inches.
Rifle zeroed at 220 Yards.
Maximum point blank range is 260 yards.
/ FPS. = Feet Per Second.
/ FT.LBS. = Foot Pounds.
/ IN. = Inches.
Bullet @ Velocity / FPS. Energy / FT.LBS. Trajectory / IN.
Muzzle 3,000 2,997 - 1.8
100 yds. 2,772 2,559 + 1.8
200 yds. 2,556 2,176 + 0.8
300 yds. 2,350 1,839 - 5.5
400 yds. 2,153 1,543 - 18.1
500 yds. 1,966 1,287 - 38.2
Predator Hunting:

Bobcat
Cougar
Coyote
 These animals can be somewhat small and offer about an two inch target zone, for a correct rifle sight-in, a one inch mid-range is required for minimum bullet trajectory effect. For this size animal, I prefer 360 foot pounds of bullet energy.
Ammunition Ballistics Selected:
Nosler 308 Winchester.
Bullet diameter: .308 Inch.
Bullet weight: 125 Grains.
Bullet ballistic coefficient: .366.
Bullet traj. set at 1 inch mid-range rise.
Rifle barrel length: 24 Inches.
Rifle-scope mounted height: 1.8 inches.
Rifle zeroed at 185 Yards.
Maximum point blank range is 210 yards.
/ FPS. = Feet Per Second.
/ FT.LBS. = Foot Pounds.
/ IN. = Inches.
Bullet @ Velocity / FPS. Energy / FT.LBS. Trajectory / IN.
Muzzle 3,175 2,798 - 1.8
100 yds. 2,907 2,345 + 0.9
200 yds. 2,655 1,957 -0.5
300 yds. 2,417 1,621 - 6.9
400 yds. 2,191 1,332 - 19.2
500 yds. 1,977 1,085 - 38.8
308 Winchester Factory Ammunition Ballistics Table:
 308 Winchester ammunition manufacturers offer a large variety of loadings with various bullet weights for hunters, which makes the .308" bullet a good choice for a large variety of hunting situations as it offers good down-range hunting ballistics. The below 308 Win. rifle ballistics table will give rifle cartridge bullet weight measured in grains, bullet velocity measured in feet per second, bullet energy measured in foot pounds, bullet drop measured in inches with 100 yard sight-in value and rifle recoil energy measured in foot pounds based on a fully loaded and scoped 8.5 pound, 24" barrel length rifle with scope mounted 1.5" above bore centerline.
Rifle Ballistics Table Compiled By: Kim Lockhart, Copyright.
308 Winchester
Cartridge
Manufacturer
Bullet
Weight
Grains
Bullet
Sectional
Density
Bullet
Ballistic
Coefficient
Muzzle
Velocity
Fps.
Muzzle
Energy
Ft. lbs.
Recoil
Energy
Ft. lbs.
Rifle
Zero
100 Yds.
Bullet
Drop @
200 Yds.
Bullet
Drop @
300 Yds.
Bullet
Drop @
400 Yds.
Bullet
Drop @
500 Yds.
Hornady 110 .166 .290 3,165 2,447 11.62 0 - 2.9" - 11.2" - 26.6" - 51.2"
Winchester 120 .180 .256 2,850 2,164 11.47 0 - 4.1" - 15.7" - 37.2" - 72.4"
Nosler 125 .188 .366 3,175 2,798 13.97 0 - 2.6" - 10.2" - 23.7" - 44.6"
Cor-Bon 130 .196 .340 3,000 2,598 13.66 0 - 3.2" - 12.2" - 28.2" - 53.1"
Winchester 147 .221 .415 2,800 2,559 14.77 0 - 3.7" - 13.6" - 30.9" - 57.0"
Hornady 150 .226 .415 3,000 2,997 16.75 0 - 3.0" - 11.4" - 26.1" - 48.3"
Hornady 155 .233 .435 2,865 2,825 16.58 0 - 3.4" - 12.7" - 28.8" - 52.9"
Hornady 165 .248 .447 2,840 2,955 17.95 0 - 3.5" - 12.9" - 29.2" - 53.5"
Winchester 168 .253 .474 2,670 2,659 17.05 0 - 4.2" - 14.9" - 33.2" - 60.6"
Federal 170 .257 .284 2,000 1,510 12.12 0 - 10.0" - 35.4" - 81.0" - 152.6"
Federal 175 .264 .505 2,600 2,627 17.64 0 - 4.4" - 15.6" - 34.7" - 63.0"
Hornady 178 .268 .530 2,775 3,043 19.83 0 - 3.6" - 13.1" - 29.3" - 53.2"
Remington 180 .271 .402 2,620 2,743 18.76 0 - 4.6" - 16.3" - 36.8" - 67.8"
308 Winchester Factory Ammunition Ballistics Chart:
 The very detailed below 308 Winchester rifle ballistics chart will give rifle cartridge bullet weight measured in grains, bullet velocity measured in feet per second, bullet energy measured in foot pounds and bullet trajectory measured in inches using a 50 yard sight-in value based on a fully loaded and scoped 8.5 pound, 24" barrel length rifle with scope mounted 1.5" above bore centerline.
Note: Same Ammunition Used In This Ballistics Chart As In The Above Ballistics Table.
Rifle Ballistics Chart Compiled By: Kim Lockhart, Copyright.
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Hornady.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 110 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .290.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 3,165 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 2,447 Foot Pounds.
110 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 2,994 2,830 2,672 2,520 2,373 2,230 2,092 1,960 1,832 1,711
Energy / FT.LBS. 2,189 1,956 1,744 1,551 1,375 1,215 1,069 938 820 715
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.5 - 0.1 - 1.8 - 5.0 - 9.7 - 16.2 - 24.6 - 35.3 - 48.6
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Winchester.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 120 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .256.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 2,850 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 2,164 Foot Pounds.
120 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 2,670 2,498 2,332 2,173 2,019 1,873 1,733 1,602 1,480 1,368
Energy / FT.LBS. 1,900 1,663 1,449 1,258 1,086 934 800 684 584 499
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.3 - 0.9 - 3.6 - 8.2 - 14.9 - 24.1 - 36.2 - 51.7 - 71.1
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Nosler.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 125 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .366.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 3,175 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 2,798 Foot Pounds.
125 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 3,039 2,907 2,779 2,655 2,534 2,417 2,302 2,191 2,082 1,977
Energy / FT.LBS. 2,563 2,345 2,144 1,957 1,783 1,621 1,471 1,332 1,204 1,085
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.5 + 0.1 - 1.5 - 4.4 - 8.6 - 14.3 - 21.6 - 30.7 - 41.9
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Cor-Bon.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 130 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .340.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 3,000 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 2,598 Foot Pounds.
130 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 2,859 2,723 2,592 2,464 2,339 2,218 2,101 1,987 1,877 1,771
Energy / FT.LBS. 2,360 2,141 1,939 1,752 1,579 1,420 1,274 1,140 1,017 905
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.4 - 0.3 - 2.4 - 5.9 - 10.9 - 17.8 - 26.6 - 37.6 - 51.1
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Winchester.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 147 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .415.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 2,800 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 2,559 Foot Pounds.
147 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 2,690 2,582 2,477 2,375 2,274 2,177 2,081 1,988 1,898 1,810
Energy / FT.LBS. 2,361 2,176 2,003 1,840 1,688 1,546 1,414 1,290 1,175 1,069
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.3 - 0.7 - 3.2 - 7.1 - 12.8 - 20.3 - 29.8 - 41.5 - 55.6
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Hornady.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 150 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .415.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 3,000 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 2,997 Foot Pounds.
150 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 2,884 2,772 2,663 2,556 2,452 2,350 2,250 2,153 2,058 1,966
Energy / FT.LBS. 2,771 2,559 2,361 2,176 2,002 1,839 1,686 1,543 1,410 1,287
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.4 - 0.2 - 2.2 - 5.4 - 10.1 - 16.4 - 24.3 - 34.2 - 46.1
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Hornady.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 155 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .435.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 2,865 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 2,825 Foot Pounds.
155 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 2,758 2,654 2,552 2,453 2,355 2,260 2,167 2,076 1,987 1,901
Energy / FT.LBS. 2,618 2,424 2,241 2,070 1,909 1,758 1,616 1,483 1,359 1,244
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.3 - 0.5 - 2.8 - 6.4 - 11.7 - 18.6 - 27.4 - 38.2 - 51.2
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Hornady.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 165 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .447.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 2,840 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 2,955 Foot Pounds.
165 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 2,736 2,636 2,537 2,440 2,346 2,253 2,163 2,075 1,988 1,904
Energy / FT.LBS. 2,743 2,545 2,358 2,182 2,016 1,860 1,714 1,577 1,448 1,329
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.3 - 0.6 - 2.9 - 6.6 - 11.9 - 19.0 - 27.9 - 38.8 - 51.9
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Winchester.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 168 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .474.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 2,670 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 2,659 Foot Pounds.
168 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 2,576 2,484 2,394 2,306 2,219 2,135 2,052 1,971 1,892 1,815
Energy / FT.LBS. 2,475 2,302 2,138 1,983 1,837 1,700 1,570 1,449 1,336 1,229
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.2 - 1.1 - 3.8 - 8.2 - 14.3 - 22.4 - 32.5 - 44.9 - 59.7
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Federal.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 170 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .284.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 2,000 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 1,510 Foot Pounds.
170 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 1,868 1,742 1,623 1,511 1,407 1,312 1,228 1,157 1,097 1,048
Energy / FT.LBS. 1,317 1,146 994 862 747 650 570 505 454 415
Trajectory / IN. 0 - 1.0 - 4.9 - 12.1 - 23.1 - 38.4 - 58.9 - 85.1 - 117.8 - 157.7
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Federal.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 175 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .505.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 2,600 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 2,627 Foot Pounds.
175 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 2,513 2,428 2,344 2,262 2,182 2,103 2,026 1,951 1,877 1,806
Energy / FT.LBS. 2,454 2,290 2,135 1,989 1,850 1,719 1,595 1,479 1,369 1,267
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.1 - 1.3 - 4.2 - 8.8 - 15.3 - 23.8 - 34.3 - 47.2 - 62.5
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Hornady.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 178 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .530.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 2,775 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 3,043 Foot Pounds.
178 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 2,689 2,604 2,522 2,440 2,360 2,282 2,205 2,130 2,056 1,983
Energy / FT.LBS. 2,857 2,681 2,513 2,354 2,202 2,058 1,922 1,792 1,670 1,554
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.3 - 0.7 - 3.1 - 6.9 - 12.3 - 19.3 - 28.2 - 38.9 - 51.7
Rifle Cartridge Manufacturer: Remington.
Bullet Diameter: .308".
Bullet Weight: 180 Grains.
Bullet Ballistic Coefficient: .402.
Bullet Muzzle Velocity: 2,620 Feet Per Second.
Bullet Muzzle Energy: 2,743 Foot Pounds.
180 Grain
Bullet @
50
Yards
100
Yards
150
Yards
200
Yards
250
Yards
300
Yards
350
Yards
400
Yards
450
Yards
500
Yards
Velocity / FPS. 2,510 2,404 2,300 2,198 2,099 2,003 1,909 1,818 1,730 1,646
Energy / FT.LBS. 2,519 2,309 2,114 1,931 1,761 1,603 1,456 1,321 1,197 1,083
Trajectory / IN. 0 + 0.1 - 1.3 - 4.3 - 9.2 - 16.0 - 25.0 - 36.4 - 50.4 - 67.3