Rifles - Cartridges - Ballistics - Copyright

308 Winchester - 7.62 NATO
Reloading - Hunting & Ballistics

7.62 NATO:
 The 7.62 NATO also known as its metric nomenclature; 7.62x51mm, is a .30" caliber, rimless, bottleneck cartridge case design, centerfire rifle cartridge. The 7.62 NATO cartridge casing is reloadable after the cartridge has been fired or spent with various combinations of primer, powder and .308" diameter bullets.
Centerfire Rifle Cartridge
Cartridge Case - Primer - Powder - Bullets

Cartridge Specifications:

Bullet Diameter - .308".
Primer Diameter - .210".
Primer Type - Large Rifle.
Case Neck Diameter - .343".
Case Shoulder Diameter - .454".
Case Base Diameter - .471".
Case Rim Diameter - .473".
Min. Case Length - 2.005" / Trimmed.
Max. Case Length - 2.015" / Stretched.
Min. Cartridge Loaded Length - 2.490".
Max. Cartridge Loaded Length - 2.810".
Max. Average Pressure - 60,200 PSI.
Rifle Specifications:

Rifling Twist Rates - 1 in 10" - 1 in 12".
Bore Land Diameter - .300" / 7.62mm.
Bore Groove Diameter - .308" / 7.82mm.

Headspace Go Gauge - 1.6350".
Headspace No Go Gauge - 1.6405".
Headspace Field Gauge - 1.6455".

History:
 In 1954, the 308 Winchester or 7.62x51mm cartridge would be adopted by NATO and the cartridge would also be known as the 7.62 NATO cartridge. Rifle chambers are then modified slightly to eliminate feeding issues in the United States Rifle - 7.62 mm - M14. Maximum cartridge pressures would also be reduced slightly.

 During the 1940s and early 1950s several experiments were carried out to improve on the M1-Garand. One of the most common complaints was the limited capacity en-bloc clip and many experimental designs modified the weapon with a detachable box magazine.

 The test program continued for several years, including both the original .30-06 Springfield round and a modified 300 Savage (then known as the T65). In the end, the T65 cartridge demonstrated power roughly equal to the original .30-06, firing a 147-grain bullet at 2,750 feet per second but was approximately .5 inches shorter. The eventual result of this competition was the T44 rifle.

 The T44 was adopted as the M14 in 1957. The M14s would later go through several variations intended to either limit fully automatic selection through semi-auto version or selector locks or improve control with bipods and/or heavier barrels.

 The 7.62 mm cartridge was introduced in U.S. service in the M14 rifle and M60 machine gun in the late 1950s. The M14 and many other firearms that use the 7.62 NATO round remain in service today, especially in the case of sniper rifles and machine guns. The cartridge is used both by infantry and on mounted and crew-served weapons mounted to vehicles, aircraft and ships.

Uses:
 The 7.62 NATO centerfire rifle cartridge is a rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard for small arms among NATO countries. When a cartridge is loaded with a bullet design that tumbles, or fragments in tissue, this cartridge is capable of delivering good terminal wounding performance for sniper, military and police use.
Twist rates - Barrel break-in - Sight-in

U.S. Military 7.62 mm Ammunition:
M61: 150.5 grain bullet, 7.62 mm NATO, armor-piercing round,
black cartridge tip.
M62: 142.0 grain bullet, 7.62 mm NATO, tracer round,
orange cartridge tip.
M276: 150 grain bullet, 7.62 mm NATO, dim tracer round,
green cartridge tip with pink ring.
M118 LR: 7.62 mm NATO, 173 Grain Bullet,
2,580 Feet Per Second Muzzle Velocity,
2,557 Foot Pounds Muzzle Energy.
M80: 147 grain bullet, 7.62 mm NATO, lead core ball round
2,733 Feet Per Second Muzzle Velocity,
2,438 Foot Pounds Muzzle Energy.
M80A1: The 7.62 mm M80A1 cartridge projectile is lead free and features a three-part bullet consisting of a steel penetrator, a copper slug, and a reverse-drawn copper jacket. It is environmentally-friendly and designed to provide improved lethality compared to the current M80 ball cartridge that it will replace.

 The 7.62 mm M80A1 cartridge is compatible with: M240 series machine guns, M134 “mini gun”, Mk48 machine gun, M110, MK17, M40A5 and M14.

U.S. Arsenal Cartridge Headstamps:
FA - Frankford Arsenal.
AO or KS - Allegheny Ordnance Plant.
DEN - Denver Ordnance Plant.
DM - Des Moines Ordnance Plant.
EC - Evansville Ordnance Plant.
ECS - Evansville Ordnance Plant (Sunbeam).
EW - Eau Claire Ordnance Plant.
KOP - Kingsbury Ordnance Plant.
LC - Lake City Ordnance Plant.
LM - Lowell Ordnance Plant.
M - Milwaukee Ordnance Plant.
P, PC, PCC - Kings Mills Ordnance Plant.
ROP - Redstone Ordnance Plant.
SL - St. Louis Ordnance Plant.
TW - Twin Cities Ordnance Plant.
U or UT - Utah Ordnance Plant.

Resources And References

Rifles:


Sig 716, Patrol Rifle, Quad Rail,
.308" Caliber / 7.62 NATO,
16" Barrel,
1 in 10" Rifling Twist.
Features:
20 Round Magazine.
Ambidextrous Magazine Release.
ODG SIG SAUER pistol grip and stock.

Springfield M1A, Battle Rifle,
.308" Caliber / 7.62 NATO,
22" Barrel,
1 in 11" Rifling Twist.
Features:
Magazine: 10 Round, Parkerized Steel.

Ammunition:
308 Win. @ Brownells
308 Win. @ Cabela's
308 Win. @ Patriot Outfitters
308 Win. @ Sinclair International
308 Win. @ Sportsmans Warehouse

Reloading Supplies:

Reloading Press Kits
.308" Diameter Rifle Bullets
308 Winchester Cartridge Casing
308 Winchester Reloading Dies
Rifle Primers
Rifle Powders
Powder Scales

Reloading Data:
Hodgdon Reloading Data Center: The reloading data information displayed on this site, including ballistic data, was derived from tightly controlled laboratory conditions, by ballisticians and expert handloaders. Lists pressure test results as well. Features load data using Hodgdon, IMR & Winchester Rifle Powders.
Accurate Reloading Data Center: The reloading data information displayed on this site, including ballistic data, was derived from tightly controlled laboratory conditions, by ballisticians and expert handloaders. Lists pressure test results as well. Features load data using Accurate Rifle Powder. Accurate is an exclusive brand of Western Powders Incorporated.
Ramshot Reloading Data Center: The reloading data information displayed on this site, including ballistic data, was derived from tightly controlled laboratory conditions, by ballisticians and expert handloaders. Lists pressure test results as well. Features load data using Ramshot Rifle Powder. Ramshot is an exclusive brand of Western Powders Incorporated.
Barnes - 308 Winchester: Load data for the 308 Winchester featuring the use of Barnes bullets.
Nosler - 308 Winchester: Load data for the 308 Winchester using Nosler bullets. Features; varying case capacity and load density for each bullet weight and accuracy loads.
Norma - 308 Winchester: Load data for the 308 Winchester featuring the use of Norma rifle powders.
Vihtavuori - 308 Winchester: Load data for the 308 Winchester featuring the use of Vihtavuori rifle powders.
IMR - 308 Winchester: Load data for the 308 Winchester featuring the use of IMR rifle powders.

Specifications:
SAAMI
Sporting Arms And Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute, Inc.: Centerfire rifle cartridge and chamber dimensional drawings, maximum cartridge, minimum chamber.
Sporting Arms And Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute, Inc.: Centerfire rifle velocity and piezoelectric transducer pressure.

Firearm News:
SAAMI withdraws from the United Nations anti-gun rhetoric and agenda.