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Shot And Choke Game Guide:
Written by: Kim Lockhart, Copyright.

Small Game Hunting:
 The shotgun is very popular for upland game hunting with bird hunting the most popular, a shotgun hunter must pay close attention to the type of shot used in shotshells and correct choke selection to ensure an effective and humane kill shot on wild-game.

 The shotgun will place 70% of shotshell shot in a 30" circle at various yardages and this is the idealistic pattern kill zone, no wounding, no over-kill which destroys the useable meat, this means the 30" circular pattern will cleanly kill anything in this 30" zone. The shotgun achieves this for the hunter with the following choke selection and yardages:

Full Choke, 30" kill zone at 40 yards.
Modified Choke, 30" kill zone at 35 yards.
Improved Cylinder Choke, 30" kill zone at 30 yards.
Cylinder Bore, 30" kill zone at 25 yards.

 Below is a list of game that can be hunted with the shotgun along with recommendations as to proper shot and choke tube selection for various ranges for humane hunting practices with shotgun use.

For Doves & Pigeon Hunting:
Use #6, #7 1/2, #8 & #9 Lead Shot.
For normal ranges, use #7 1/2 or #8 lead shot for light shooting.
For longer ranges, use heavier loads of larger shot.
Modified Choke is the most effective.

For Ducks & Geese Hunting:
Use T, BBB, BB, #1, #2, #3, #4 & #6 Steel Shot.
For ducks at normal ranges #2 and #4 steel shot are the most popular. BBB steel shot is the most effective for geese.
Improved Cylinder Choke, for small ducks up to 45 yds.
Modified Choke, for medium and large ducks.
Full Choke, for geese and large ducks beyond 45 yds.

For Fox & Predator Hunting:
Use BB & #2 Lead Shot.
Full Choke is the most effective.

For Grouse & Partridge Hunting:
Use #5, #6, #7 1/2 & #8 Lead Shot.
On smaller grouse or partridge, use the smaller shot.
Use larger size shot for heavier ounce loads and larger birds.
Improved Cylinder Choke or Modified Choke, for brush.
Full Choke, for open ranges.

For Pheasant Hunting:
Use #4, #5 & #6 Lead Shot.
Use #4 Lead Shot, for field shooting where long shots are typical.
Use #5 Lead Shot, for over dogs shooting.
Use #6 Lead Shot for average hunting conditions.
Improved Cylinder Choke, for close cover.
Modified or Full Choke for long field shots.

For Quail Hunting:
Use #7 1/2, #8 & #9 Lead Shot.
For early season shooting on small quail, use #9 Lead Shot.
Larger Quail and longer shots, use #7 1/2 or #8 Lead Shot.
Improved Cylinder Choke or Modified Choke are the most effective.

For Rabbit Hunting:
Use #4, #5 & #6 Lead Shot.
Improved Cylinder Choke or Modified Choke, for brush.
Full Choke, for long, open shots.

For Squirrel Hunting:
Use #4, #5, #6 & #7 1/2 Lead Shot.
Modified Choke is most effective and least destructive.

For Turkey Hunting:
Use #2, #4, #5 & #6 Lead Shot.
The longer the range, use heavier ounce and larger shot size loads.
Full Choke - Super Full Choke are the most effective.

For Woodcock Hunting:
Use #7 1/2, #8 & #9 Lead Shot.
Use Improved Cylinder Choke in heavy brushy areas.
Use Modified Choke in more open woods cover.

Relevant Lead Shot to Steel Shot Shotgun Ammunition Ballistic Equivalency Conversion Chart For Small Game Hunting Applications:
Steel
Size
# 6
# 4
# 3
# 2
Shot Count
1 1/8 oz.
335
212
175
141
Energy 40 yds.
1350 f.p.s.
1.3 ft.lbs.
2.4 ft.lbs.
3.4 ft.lbs.
4.0 ft.lbs.
Lead
Size
# 7 1/2
# 6
# 5
# 4
Shot Count
1 oz.
350
225
170
135
Energy 40 yds.
1350 f.p.s.
1.3 ft.lbs.
2.3 ft.lbs.
3.5 ft.lbs.
4.0 ft.lbs.
Steel
Size
BB
Shot Count
1 1/8 oz.
80
Energy 60 yds.
1350 f.p.s.
5.6 ft.lbs.
Lead
Size
# 2
Shot Count
1 oz.
87
Energy 60 yds.
1350 f.p.s.
4.9 ft.lbs.


#4 Steel Shot, Pellet Weight 2.278 Grains, Velocity 1,375 FPS.
Down Range
20 yds.
30 yds.
40 yds.
50 yds.
60 yds.
Pellet Velocity / FPS.:
935
785
675
590
515
Pellet Energy / FT. LBS.:
4.71
3.32
2.46
1.88
1.43
Pellet Time Of Flight / SEC.:
.0517
.0869
.1283
.1761
.2307
#6 Lead Shot, Pellet Weight 1.947 Grains, Velocity 1,330 FPS.
Down Range
20 yds.
30 yds.
40 yds.
50 yds.
60 yds.
Pellet Velocity / FPS.:
940
800
700
620
550
Pellet Energy / FT. LBS.:
3.81
2.76
2.11
1.66
1.30
Pellet Time Of Flight / SEC.:
.0529
.0876
.1278
.1736
.2252
#2 Steel Shot, Pellet Weight 3.509 Grains, Velocity 1,375 FPS.
Down Range
20 yds.
30 yds.
40 yds.
50 yds.
60 yds.
Pellet Velocity / FPS.:
965
815
710
625
555
Pellet Energy / FT. LBS.:
7.64
5.45
4.14
3.21
2.53
Pellet Time Of Flight / SEC.:
.0510
.0849
.1244
.1695
.2205
#4 Lead Shot, Pellet Weight 3.248 Grains, Velocity 1,330 FPS.
Down Range
20 yds.
30 yds.
40 yds.
50 yds.
60 yds.
Pellet Velocity / FPS.:
970
840
740
660
590
Pellet Energy / FT. LBS.:
6.72
5.04
3.91
3.11
2.49
Pellet Time Of Flight / SEC.:
.0519
.0852
.1235
.1666
.2147


Introduction To Shotguns:
Budget
Competition
Turkey
Versatility
Remington 870
Gunsmithing
Bore Burnishing
Forcing Cones
Back Boring
Stock Fitting
Stocks Don't Fit
Reloading
How To Reload
Recoil
L.U.P./P.S.I.
Shooting
Shot-Strings
Shot Drop
Game Guide
Chokes
Choke Tubes
Choke Tube Types
Turkey Chokes
Shotgun Shells
SteelvsLead
Lead Poisoning
Turkey
Patterning
Patterning For Turkey
Analysis
Improvements
Clay Pattern Target
Dove Pattern Target
Turkey Pattern Target